Ascorbic acid in the human stomach
Ascorbic acid, the reduced form of vitamin C, may protect against gastric cancer. Accordingly, this study assessed the variability of ascorbic acid and vitamin C in the gastric juice of 77 patients with dyspepsia. There was a vitamin C concentration gradient from gastric juice down to plasma in subjects with normal gastric mucosa, but not in those with chronic gastritis. Patients with chronic gastritis had significantly lower gastric concentrations of vitamin C and ascorbic acid, and ascorbic acid concentrations were especially low in subjects with hypochlorhydria. The presence of the concentration gradient suggests that a mechanism for the secretion of vitamin C into the stomach exists. This is compromised by chronic gastritis. The very low ascorbic acid concentrations in hypochlorhydria may be a consequence of oxidation by bacterial nitrite. Those patients who by the Correa model are at greatest risk for gastric cancer have the lowest gastric levels of ascorbic acid.
Vitamin C: A Preventative, Therapeutic Agent Against Helicobacter pylori
The treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induced infections using antibiotic therapies is clinically well accepted; however, using a noninvasive approach with the implementation of therapeutic agents such as vitamin C is not well investigated. Vitamin C has certain characteristics, which allow for it to be considered as a potential treatment option for patients with H. pylori infections. Vitamin C’s hostility and mechanism of action towards H. pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease can be classified into two categories: as a preventative agent and alternatively as a therapeutic agent. Preventatively vitamin C acts as a biological antioxidant as well as an immune boosting agent, while therapeutically it acts as an inhibitor of urease, a potential collagen synthesizing agent, and a stimulant in prostaglandin synthesis. As a result, the dosage of vitamin C should be highly regulated. Furthermore, numerous studies have shown that vitamin C supplementation if taken with antibiotics can increase the efficiency of the treatment leading to an increased possibility of eradication of H. pylori in infected individuals. This paper will investigate the recent studies that show different mechanisms through which vitamin C can be used as a preventative or a therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori related infections.
Host sequesters zinc to control stomach bug
Helicobacter pylori colonization of the stomach causes chronic inammation and is a major risk factor for gastric cancer. H. pylori strains that produce the cag secretion system, which translocates the cancer-causing CagA protein into cells, are associated with increased inflammation and cancer risk.
Zinc in gastrointestinal and liver disease
Zinc is an essential trace element with important biological functions, depending on the structural and/or catalytic role played by zinc ions in a large variety of enzymes. Zinc plays a critical role in cellular integrity, protein synthesis, nucleic acid metabolism, contributing to cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and death. The present review reports data on zinc homeostasis and metabolism, zinc absorption, intercellular trafficking, intracellular transport inside enterocytes and hepatocytes. Particular emphasis is given to data regarding the role of zinc carriers ZnTs and Zips, and to their expression in liver and gut in experimental and in human studies. The role of zinc in the gastrointestinal tract and in the liver as a powerful antioxidant and its relationship with apoptosis is discussed. Possible implications of zinc status in different disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are presented, focusing on its possible introduction in the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases. Data on the role of zinc and zinc carriers in the evolution of liver fibrosis towards cirrhosis are also discussed. Finally, data on the ability of zinc therapy to obtain regression of liver cirrhosis in patients affected by Wilson’s disease are reported, and the hypothesis that zinc could protect against liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease of different origin is presented.
Bacillus coagulans significantly improved abdominal pain and bloating in patients with IBS
Preliminary data suggest that the patented B coagulans GBI-30, 6086 probiotic may be a safe and effective option for the relief o abdominal pain and bloating for patients with IBS. Larger, extended trials are needed to verify these results.
The efficacy of a synbiotic containing Bacillus Coagulans in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized placebo-controlled trial
Prebiotics are dietary components that promote the growth and metabolic activity of beneficial bacteria, and probiotics are live micro-organisms with a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts
We found that three-month therapy with a synbiotic containing Bacillus Coagulans is effective in relieving abdominal pain/discomfort and diarrhea, but not constipation in IBS patients. Also, we found that the beneficial effects of the synbiotic remained for long-term.