Pro- and Antioxidant Effects of Vitamin C in Cancer in correspondence to Its Dietary and Pharmacological Concentrations
Vitamin C is an antioxidant that may scavenge reactive oxygen species preventing DNA damage and other effects important in cancer transformation. Dietary vitamin C from natural sources is taken with other compounds affecting its bioavailability and biological effects. High pharmacological doses of vitamin C may induce prooxidant effects, detrimental for cancer cells. An oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbate, is transported through glucose transporters, and cancer cells switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis in energy production so an excess of vitamin C may limit glucose transport and ATP production resulting in energetic crisis and cell death. Vitamin C may change the metabolomic and epigenetic profiles of cancer cells, and activation of ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins and downregulation of pluripotency factors by the vitamin may eradicate cancer stem cells. Metastasis, the main reason of cancer-related deaths, requires breakage of anatomical barriers containing collagen, whose synthesis is promoted by vitamin C. Vitamin C induces degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor, HIF-1, essential for the survival of tumor cells in hypoxic conditions. Dietary vitamin C may stimulate the immune system through activation of NK and T cells and monocytes.
Overview of the possible role of vitamin C in management of COVID-19
The mainstay of management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mainly supportive as to date there is no effective antiviral treatment, apart from remdesivir which has been approved by Food and Drug administration (FDA) for treatment of COVID-19, or vaccine. Supplementation with micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, has gained an increasing interest as part of the supportive management of COVID-19. Vitamin C levels in serum and leukocytes are depleted during the acute stage of infection owing to increased metabolic demands. High-dose vitamin C supplement helps to normalise both serum and leukocytes vitamin C levels. Vitamin C has multiple pharmacological characteristics, antiviral, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, which make it a potential therapeutic option in management of COVID-19. The use of high dose of intravenous vitamin C for management of COVID-19 in China and the United Stated has shown promising results. There were no reported adverse reactions with the short-term use of high dose of vitamin C. Given the fact that vitamin C is cheap, available and safe drug with beneficial effects in management of viral infections and critically ill patients reported in previous clinical trials, it is sensible to add it to COVID-19 management protocol particularly if the current ongoing clinical trials testing the effect of vitamin C in management of COVID-19 show positive results.
From COVID to Cancer, is Vitamin C the Answer?
The research on the safety and efficacy on various forms of vitamin C over the last 80 plus years, is widely established. Currently, there are clinical trials and case studies taking place on vitamin C mega dose’s, as a single therapy or in conjunction with other therapies around the globe. Essentially, all of these studies are proving that mega dose vitamin C is highly beneficial by enhancing the quality of life for the patient and mitigating the toxic effects of chemotherapy, shortening cold symptoms, and treating viruses with promising results. What the research is showing, even with COVID-19, is that vitamin C is a safe and effective treatment and is readily available to treat patients from COVID to cancer.
Recent aspects of the effects of zinc on human health
Zinc (Zn) is one of the most important essential nutrients of great public health significance. It is involved in numerous biological functions and it is considered as a multipurpose trace element, due to its capacity to bind to more than 300 enzymes and more than 2000 transcriptional factors. Its role in biochemical pathways and cellular functions, such as the response to oxidative stress, homeostasis, immune responses, DNA replication, DNA damage repair, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and aging is significant. Zn is required for the synthesis of protein and collagen, thus contributing to wound healing and a healthy skin. Metallothioneins are metal-binding proteins and they are potent scavengers of heavy metals, including Zn, and protect the organism against stress. Zn deficiency is observed almost in 17% of the global population and affects many organ systems, leading to dysfunction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, thus increasing the susceptibility to infection. This review gives a thorough insight into the most recent evidence on the association between Zn biochemistry and human pathologies, epigenetic processes, gut microbial composition, drug targets and nanomedicine.
Lessons Learned from Experimental Human Model of Zinc Deficiency
Zinc is an essential element for humans, and its deficiency was documented in 1963. Nutritional zinc deficiency is now known to affect over two billion subjects in the developing world. Conditioned deficiency of zinc in many diseases has also been observed.
Zinc therapy may be very useful in many chronic diseases. Zinc supplementation improves cell-mediated immunity, decreases oxidative stress, and decreases generation of chronic inflammatory cytokines in humans.
Probiotic characteristics of Bacillus coagulans and associated implications for human health and diseases
As a spore-forming probiotic bacterium, Bacillus coagulans has become a focus of research due to its high tolerance of extreme environments and probiotic characteristics. Several beneficial effects of B. coagulans have been reported. Firstly, B. coagulans can promote intestinal digestion. For example, B. coagulansstrains can produce various enzymes that facilitate excretion and digestion. Secondly, B. coagulans can regulate host symbiotic microbiota and inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Lastly, due to its ability to normalize both the quantitative parameters of the immune system and immune cells’ functional activity, B. coagulans can significantly benefit the host immune system. Due to the evidence supporting various probiotic effects of B. coagulans, many B. coagulans strains have been studied in the management and alleviation of several human diseases. Therefore, the administration of B. coagulans may be an attractive preventive and/or therapeutic approach for human diseases.
Bacillus coagulans, a Novel Probiotic for Food & Supplements?
Bacillus coagulans is an interesting probiotic for use in food and supplements due to its extreme tolerance of heat, processing, and acidic environment and is demonstrating promising results for several health and performance outcomes.
“King Of Probiotics” Bacillus Coagulans In Modern Combined Probiotic Preparations Laktovit Forte
Bacillus coagulans has an advantage over most other bacteria used as probiotics. It occupies an intermediate position between the genera Bacillusand Lactobacillus, is a spore-forming bacteria that produce lactic acid.This bacteria in the spores form can tolerate well technology processes, resistant to antibiotics and antiseptics, does not collapse under the influence of gastric juice and bile. Getting into the duodenum, the spores germinate into vegetative forms and begin vegetation and growth, providing probiotic effects.