Regular vitamin C supplementation during pregnancy reduces hospitalization: outcomes of a Ugandan rural cohort study

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is a hydro-soluble lactone (synthesized from glucose) essential to human body and available from diet. Despite its broad availability in fruits and vegetables, in many developing countries the incidence of clinical symptoms due to the vitamin deficiency is still very high. Also, pregnant women in the developing countries are frequently hospitalized for several preventable reasons such as anemia in pregnancy, mostly iron-deficient anemia (IDA) and the upper/lower respiratory tract infections (RTI). The aim of the study was to investigate, in a Ugandan rural pregnant women cohort, the preventive effects of vitamin C supplementation on hospital admission.

The results of this study suggest including vitamin C in the guidelines of multivitamin prevention for pregnant women, especially in developing countries where seasonal availability of fruits and vegetables could result in adverse clinical outcomes.


Factors Affecting Vitamin C Status and Prevalence of Deficiency: A Global Health Perspective

A recent review of global vitamin C status has indicated a high prevalence of deficiency, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in specific subgroups within high-income countries. Here, we provide a narrative review of potential factors influencing vitamin C status globally. The in vivo status of vitamin C is primarily affected by dietary intake and supplement use, with those who supplement having a higher mean status and a lower prevalence of deficiency. Dietary intake can be influenced by cultural aspects such as traditional cooking practices and staple foods, with many staple foods, such as grains, contributing negligible vitamin C to the diet. Environmental factors can also affect vitamin C intake and status; these include geographic region, season, and climate, as well as pollution, the latter partly due to enhanced oxidative stress. Demographic factors such as sex, age, and race are known to affect vitamin C status, as do socioeconomic factors such as deprivation, education and social class, and institutionalization. Various health aspects can affect vitamin C status; these include body weight, pregnancy and lactation, genetic variants, smoking, and disease states, including severe infections as well as various noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Some of these factors have changed over time; therefore, we also explore if vitamin C status has shown temporal changes. Overall, there are numerous factors that can affect vitamin C status to different extents in various regions of the world. Many of these factors are not taken into consideration during the setting of global dietary intake recommendations for vitamin C.


Zinc Supplement Precautions

The body needs zinc for normal growth and health. For patients who are unable Zn Plus Proteinto get enough zinc in their regular diet or who have a need for more zinc, zinc supplements may be necessary. They are generally taken by mouth but some patients may have to receive them by injection.

Zinc supplements may be used for other conditions as determined by your health care professional.

Lack of zinc may lead to poor night vision and wound-healing, a decrease in sense of taste and smell, a reduced ability to fight infections, and poor development of reproductive organs.

In addition, premature infants may need additional zinc.

Zinc is found in various foods, including lean red meats, seafood (especially herring and oysters), peas, and beans. Zinc is also found in whole grains; however, large amounts of whole- grains have been found to decrease the amount of zinc that is absorbed. Additional zinc may be added to the diet through treated (galvanized) cookware. Foods stored in uncoated tin cans may cause less zinc to be available for absorption from food.


Zinc supplementation during pregnancy

Zinc is an essential mineral known to be important for many biological functions including protein synthesis, cellular division and nucleic acid metabolism. Severe zinc deficiency is rare in humans, but mild to moderate deficiency may be common, especially in populations with low consumption of zinc-rich animal-source foods and high intakes of foods rich in phytates, which inhibit zinc absorption.It is estimated that over 80% of pregnant women worldwide have inadequate zinc intake, consuming on average 9.6 mg zinc per day, well below the recommended minimum daily levels for the last two trimesters of pregnancy in settings of low zinc bioavailability.

It has been suggested that maternal zinc deficiency may compromise infant development and lead to poor birth outcomes.


Probiotics in pregnancy: protocol of a double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial for pregnant women with depression and anxiety (PIP pilot trial)

Maternal prenatal depressive or anxiety symptoms are associated with adverse maternal and infant health outcomes. With prevalence rates of maternal prenatal depression and anxiety ranging between 10 and 20%, attempts to identify effective interventions to reduce symptoms are priority. There are indications that probiotics can reduce symptoms of maternal depression or anxiety. Probiotics ingested by the mother may thus offer a promising and accessible intervention to complement existing treatments.